Classical and logic deals with crisp sets and fuzzy sets, respectively

## What is logic?

It is a method for developing a quantitative reasoning process that can be duplicated and altered using mathematical proofs.

It is the ability of humans to think rationally about something using suitable evidence and inferences.

### Proposition:

It is a collection of declarative statements that have either a truth value as true or a truth value as false. Example: Man is mortal

The veracity (truth) of an element in the proposition P can be assigned a binary truth value, called T (P)

All elements u in the universe U that are true for the proposition set P are called as the truth set of P

All elements u in the universe U that are false for the proposition set P are called as the falsity set of P

For a universe X and a null set ϕ, we will define the truth value as: T(U)=1 and T(ϕ)=0

## Connectives:

It connects the propositional statements together to form new propositions

If P and Q are two propositions on the same universe, they can be combined using 5 logical connectives:

1. Disjunction (∨)
2. Conjunction (∧)
3. Negation (-) or (~)
4. Implication (→)
5. Equivalence (⟷)

### Connective: Disjunction

The disjunction connective or “logical or” is a term used to represent inclusive or.

P ∨ Q: x ∈ A or x ∈ B

Hence, T(P ∨ Q) = max⁡(T(P), T(Q))

### Connective: Conjuction

If both the proposition P and Q are true, then the compound proposition will be true. It performs logical ‘and’ operation

P ∧ Q: x ∈ A and x ∈ B

Hence, T(P ∧ Q) = min⁡(T(P), T(Q))

### Connective: Negation

The negation of a proposition P is false when P is true and vice versa

if T(P) = 1, then T(P’) = 0

if T(P) = 0, then T(P’) = 1

### Connective: Implication

P→Q: ”p entails q” means that it can never happen that p is true and q is not true.

It is also written as “If P then Q”, where P is called as the premise/hypothesis and Q is called as conclusion

(P → Q): x ∉ A or x ∈ B

T(P → Q) = T(P’ ∪ Q)

In other words,

Example: If you score 90% or above in this subject, then you will get an A grade

### Connective: Equivalence

The equivalence connective is generally used when we have a dual implication for propositions P and Q

i.e. if P → Q and Q → P, then we can say that P ⟷ Q

All five connectives are summarized in following table:

## Tautology:

In classical logic it is useful to consider compound propositions that are always true, irrespective of the truth values of the individual simple propositions.

Classical logical compound propositions with this property are called tautologies.

Tautologies are useful for deductive reasoning, for proving theorems, and for making deductive inferences.

• Modus Ponens: (P ∧ (P → Q)) → Q
• Modus Tollens: (Q’  ∧ (P → Q)) → P’

### Modus Ponens:

Proof:

Let us prove that modus ponens is tautology with the help of step by step derivation

(P ∧ (P → Q)) → Q

(P ∧ (P’ ∪ Q)) → Q [Implication]

((P ∧ P’) ∪ (P ∧ Q)) → Q [Distributivity]

(ϕ ∪ (P ∧ Q)) → Q [Excluded Middle]

(P ∧ Q) → Q [Identity]

(P ∧ Q)’ ∪ Q [Implication]

(P’ ∪ Q’ ) ∪ Q [De Morgan’s Law]

P’ ∪ (Q’ ∪ Q) [Associativity]

P ∪ X [Excluded Middle]

X [Identity]

T(X)=1

Proof using tabular method:

S = (P ∧ (P → Q)) → Q

To check if given statement is tautology or not, we shall derive a truth table and check if all the entries have result T in last column. If so then the statement is tautology, else it is not.

### Modus Tollens:

Proof:

Let us demonstrate that modus ponens is a tautology via a step-by-step derivation.

(Q’ ∧ (P → Q)) → P’

(Q’ ∧ (P’ ∪ Q)) → P’ [Implication]

(Q’ ∧ P’) ∪ (Q’ ∧ Q )) → P’ [Distributivity]

(Q’ ∧ P’) ∪ ϕ) → P’ [Excluded Middle]

Q’ ∧ P’→ P’ [Identity]

(Q’ ∧ P’)’ ∪ P’ [Implication]

(Q ∪ P) ∪ P’ [De Morgan’s Las]

Q ∪ (P ∪ P’) [Associativity]

Q ∪ X [Excluded Middle]

X [Identity]

T(X) = 1

Proof using tabular method:

S = (Q’ ∧ (P → Q)) → P’

To determine whether a given statement is a tautology, we will create a truth table and see if all of the entries have the outcome T in the last column. If so, the statement is a tautology; otherwise, it is not.

A proposition that is always false regardless of the truth value of individual simple propositions constituting that compound proposition.

A ∩ A’ = ϕ

A ∩ ϕ = ϕ

Example: Prove that (P ↔ Q) ∧ P’ ∧ Q is contradiction

Scholarly Reading: Performance evaluation of classical and fuzzy logic control techniques for brushless DC motor drive is studied in this article

## Test Your Knowledge:

• A). Check if (P → Q) ∨ (Q → P) is a tautology or not
• B). Check if (P XOR Q) ^ (P XNOR Q) is contradiction or not