Supervised Machine Learning – An Art to Teach Machines
Supervised learning algorithms are one of the most popular types of machine learning. They are programmed to detect specific patterns in a set of data and make predictions based on them.
You train your model on a labelled dataset in supervised learning, which means we have both raw input data and results. We divided our data into two sets: a training dataset and a test dataset. The training dataset is used to train our network, while the test dataset is used to predict results or check the model’s correctness.
As a result, in supervised learning, our model learns from observed results in the same way as a teacher does because the teacher already knows the outcomes. Because model perfection is usually high, we attain accuracy in supervised learning.
Building a model that is able to reliably predict the output labels for data that has not been seen before is the objective of supervised learning. The algorithm is able to learn from the data that has been labelled by reducing the amount of variance that exists between its anticipated output and the actual output labels.
As shown below, the samples of a few objects (apples, tomatoes, horses) with labels are given as input. Feature extraction technic finds out the compact representation of the image. These features, along with known labels are used to train the model. The model will establish a mathematical function which represents the relation between features and corresponding labels. This learned model is later used to predict the output of unknown samples.
The test image is presented to the same features extraction method, which was used during the training phase and the feature vector is presented to the learned model. From past experience, the model will predict the output of the test image, which is Apple in this particular case.
Supervised learning algorithms use labelled data to get trained. The algorithm starts with a set of examples where the desired output is already known and then builds a model based on it. The algorithm generalizes from these examples to predict new values or classify new examples as well as possible.
Some of the popular supervised algorithms are stated here:
- Linear regression
- Polynomial regression
- Logistic regression
- Support vector machine
- Decision tree
- Random forest classifier
- Artificial neural network
Types of Supervised ML Algorithms
Regression and classification are the two primary categories of supervised learning techniques. When the output labels are continuous values, such as when trying to forecast the price of a house based on its characteristics, regression algorithms are the type of algorithm that is utilised. Classification algorithms are employed in situations in which the output labels are discrete values. An example of this would be determining whether or not the content of an email is spam.
Linear regression, logistic regression, decision trees, random forests, support vector machines, and neural networks are all examples of common algorithms used in supervised learning. These methods are adaptable and can be utilised with a wide variety of data types, including numerical data, categorical data, and text data.
Applications of Supervised Learning
Spam Filtration: Detecting spam emails is a very useful tool; these filtration techniques can easily detect any type of virus, malware, or even malicious URLs. According to recent studies, approximately 56.87 % of all emails circulating on the internet were spam in March 2017, a significant decrease from the 71.1 % spam share in April 2014.
Online fraud detection: Machine learning is making our online transactions safer and more secure by detecting fraudulent transactions. When we conduct an online transaction, there are several ways for a fraudulent transaction to occur, such as creating fake accounts and ids and stealing money in the middle of a transaction. So, to detect this, the Feed Forward Neural Network assists us by determining whether the transaction is genuine or fraudulent.
Sentiment analysis: Sentiment Analysis is a natural language processing technique that analyses and categorizes some meaning from text data. For instance, if we are analyzing people’s tweets and want to predict whether a tweet is a question, complaint, suggestion, opinion, or news, we will simply use sentiment analysis.
Recommender Systems: Every e-Commerce site or media uses a recommendation system to recommend products and new releases to their customers or users based on their activities. Netflix, Amazon, YouTube, and Flipkart all make a lot of money thanks to their recommendation systems.
Speech Recognition: This is a type of application in which you teach the algorithm about your voice so that it can recognize you. The most well-known real-world applications are virtual assistants like Google Assistant and Siri, which respond to the keyword only with your voice.
Self-driving cars: Self-driving cars are one of the most exciting applications of machine learning. Machine learning is important in self-driving cars. Tesla, the most well-known car manufacturer, is developing a self-driving car. It trains car models to detect people and objects while driving using an unsupervised learning method.
Automatic Language Translation: Nowadays, if we visit a new place and are unfamiliar with the language, it is not a problem at all; machine learning also assists us in this regard by converting the text into our known languages. This feature is provided by Google’s GNMT (Google Neural Machine Translation), which is a Neural Machine Learning that translates text into our familiar language and is known as automatic translation.
The technology underlying automatic translation is a sequence-to-sequence learning algorithm, which is used in conjunction with image recognition to translate text from one language to another.
Bioinformatics: Because we all use it in our daily lives, this is one of the most well-known applications of Supervised Learning. Bioinformatics is the storage of biological information about humans, such as fingerprints, iris texture, and earlobe size. Cell phones of today are capable of learning our biological information and then authenticating us, increasing the system’s security. Smartphones such as iPhones and Google Pixels support facial recognition, while OnePlus and Samsung support in-display finger recognition.